The human history of the west coast of North America is believed to stretch back to the arrival of . The Pacific Coast of Mexico and Central America was not especially . the English claim to this territory dates back to John Cabot's landing on the . War between Spain and Great Britain over control of the Pacific Northwest. weapons of the spanish american war - - Yahoo Image Search Results Osprey - Men at Arms - The Mexican - American War - 48 . died Mexican American War total killed Date Years Facts Summary Battles Manifest Destiny. Getting Started | American Revolution | War of | Mexican-American War | Civil War | Buffalo Soldiers . U.S.-Mexican War () (ncsplnc.info com/Arts/Humanities/History/By_Time_Period/ Publication Date: March
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - HISTORY
No anesthetic was available except brandy.
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The operation was successful, but it might have left James impotent or sterile, as he had no children. He recovered quickly, and became more robust.
His father offered to bring him into one of his businesses, but he wanted an education and enrolled at a Presbyterian academy in He then entered Bradley Academy in Murfreesboro, Tennesseewhere he proved a promising student.
The Polk family had connections with the university, then a small school of about 80 students; Samuel was its land agent in Tennessee and his cousin William Polk was a trustee. Polk joined the Dialectic Society where he took part in debates, became its president, and learned the art of oratory. On September 20,he was elected clerk of the Tennessee State Senatewhich then sat in Murfreesboro and to which Grundy had been elected.
In Junehe was admitted to the Tennessee bar, and his first case was to defend his father against a public fighting charge; he secured his release for a one-dollar fine.
The election was in Augustalmost a year away, allowing him ample time for campaigning. He was later appointed a colonel on the staff of Governor William Carrolland was afterwards often referred to as "Colonel". People liked Polk's oratory, which earned him the nickname "Napoleon of the Stump. Polk and Sarah Childress Polk Beginning in earlyPolk courted Sarah Childress —they were engaged the following year  and married on January 1, in Murfreesboro.
When the Tennessee Legislature deadlocked on who to elect as U. Polk broke from his usual allies, casting his vote as a member of the state House of Representatives for the general in Jackson's victory. This boosted Jackson's presidential chances by giving him recent political experience [b] to match his military accomplishments.
This began an alliance  that would continue until Jackson's death early in Polk's presidency. Polk's political career was as dependent on Jackson as his nickname implied.
It is now known as the James K. In the U. House of Representativeswhich chose Secretary of State John Quincy Adamswho had received the second-most of each. Polk, like other Jackson supporters, believed that Speaker of the House Henry Clay had traded his support as fourth-place finisher the House may only choose from among the top three to Adams in a Corrupt Bargain in exchange for being the new Secretary of State. Polk had in August declared his candidacy for the following year's election to the House of Representatives from Tennessee's 6th congressional district.
Polk campaigned so vigorously that Sarah began to worry about his health. During the campaign, Polk's opponents said that at the age of 29 Polk was too young for the responsibility of a seat in the House, but he won the election with 3, votes out of 10, and took his seat in Congress later that year.
Polk made his first major speech on March 13,in which he said that the Electoral College should be abolished and that the president should be elected by popular vote. Following Jackson's victory over Adams, Polk became one of the new President's most prominent and loyal supporters in the House. Some Westerners, including Jackson, opposed the Second Bank, deeming it a monopoly acting in the interest of Easterners. The bill passed Congress inbut Jackson vetoed it and Congress failed to override the veto.
Jackson's action was highly controversial in Washington, but had considerable public support, and he won easy re-election in Calhoun 's opposition to the Tariff of Abominations during the Nullification Crisis of —, but came over to Jackson's side as Calhoun moved towards advocating secession. Thereafter, Polk remained loyal to Jackson as the President sought to assert federal authority.
Polk condemned secession and supported the Force Bill against South Carolina, which had claimed the authority to nullify federal tariffs. The matter was settled by Congress passing a compromise tariff. Polk's committee issued a report questioning the Second Bank's finances, and another supporting Jackson's actions against it.
In Aprilthe Ways and Means Committee reported a bill to regulate state deposit banks, which, when passed, enabled Jackson to deposit funds in pet banksand Polk got legislation passed to allow the sale of the government's stock in the Second Bank. After ten ballots, Bell, who had the support of many opponents of the administration, defeated Polk. They were successful; Polk defeated Bell to take the Speakership.
Leonard in his book on Polk, "bywhile serving as Speaker of the House of Representatives, Polk approached the zenith of his congressional career. He was at the center of Jacksonian Democracy on the House floor, and, with the help of his wife, he ingratiated himself into Washington's social circles.
Polk appointed committees with Democratic chairs and majorities, including the New York radical C.
Cambreleng as the new Ways and Means chair, although he tried to maintain the Speaker's traditional nonpartisan appearance. The two major issues during Polk's speakership were slavery and, after the Panic ofthe economy.
Polk firmly enforced the " gag rule ", by which the House of Representatives would not accept or debate citizen petitions regarding slavery. Instead of finding a way to silence Adams, Polk frequently engaged in useless shouting matches, leading Jackson to conclude that the Speaker should have shown better leadership.
Some believed this had led to the crash by causing a lack of confidence in paper currency issued by banks. Despite such arguments, with support from Polk and his cabinet, Van Buren chose to back the Specie Circular. Polk and Van Buren attempted to establish an Independent Treasury system that would allow the government to oversee its own deposits rather than using pet banksbut the bill was defeated in the House.
Unlike many of his peers, he never challenged anyone to a duel no matter how much they insulted his honor. Polk by then had presidential ambitions, but was well aware that no Speaker had ever become president Polk is still the only one to have held both offices. Polk undertook his first statewide campaign, against the Whig incumbent, Newton Cannonwho sought a third two-year term as governor.
After being bested by Polk in the early debates, the governor retreated to Nashville, by then the state capital, alleging important official business. Polk made speeches across the state, seeking to become known more widely than in his native Middle Tennessee. When Cannon came back on the campaign trail in the final days, Polk pursued him, hastening the length of the state to be able to debate the governor again.
On Election Day, August 1,Polk defeated Cannon, 54, to 51, as the Democrats recaptured the state legislature and won back three congressional seats in Tennessee. But Polk saw the office as a springboard for his national ambitions, seeking to be nominated as Van Buren's vice presidential running mate at the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore in May.
The convention chose to endorse no one for vice president, stating that a choice would be made once the popular vote was cast. Three weeks after the convention, recognizing that Johnson was too popular in the party to be ousted, Polk withdrew his name.
The Whig presidential candidate, General William Henry Harrisonconducted a rollicking campaign with the motto " Tippecanoe and Tyler Too ", easily winning both the national vote and that in Tennessee. Polk campaigned in vain for Van Buren  and was embarrassed by the outcome; Jackson, who had returned to his home, the Hermitagenear Nashville, was horrified at the prospect of a Whig administration. Harrison's death after a month in office in left the presidency to Vice President John Tylerwho soon broke with the Whigs.
Jones against Polk in The two debated the length of Tennessee,  and Jones's support of distribution to the states of surplus federal revenues, and of a national bank, struck a chord with Tennessee voters. On June 14, Native Californians who were English-speaking in Sonoma, arrested and imprisoned the Mexican governor and declared an independent California Republic.
He took control of the California Republic in July of that year. Subsequently he transferred his command to Robert F. Stockton under orders from congress. Kearny then proceeded onward with a detachment of dragoons along the Gila river valley, and across the deserts to California.
Mexican-American War: Causes and Definition | ncsplnc.info - HISTORY
After some initial reverses, he united with naval reinforcements and won the Battles of San Gabriel and La Mesa and as a result took control of San Diego and Los Angeles. A major dispute then broke out between Kearny and Stockton over control of California. Stockton appointed John C.
The dispute was primarily caused by conflicting directives from Washington. He promised a peaceful conclusion to the war and sale of territory to the Americans so as to pass through their blockades.
What was the mexican war?
He then, after his arrival, reneged on these promises and offered his military skills to the Mexican government. After he had been appointed general, he reneged again, this time to his own government, and seized the presidency.
A large force led by Taylor crossed the Rio Grande Rio Bravo after some initial difficulties in obtaining river transport. He occupied the city of Matamoros, then Camargo where while waiting the soldiery suffered the first of many problems with disease and then proceeded south and besieged the city of Monterrey. This was a hard fought battle during which both sides suffered serious losses. The Americans light artillery was ineffective against the stone fortifications of the city.
However an infantry division and the Texas Rangers captured four hills to the west of the town and with them heavy cannon. That lent the Americans the strength to storm the city from the west and east. Once in the city, Americans fought house to house: Eventually, these actions drove and trapped Ampudia's men into the city's central plaza, where howitzer shelling forced Ampudia to negotiate. Taylor agreed to allow the Mexican Army to evacuate and to an 8-week armistice in return for the surrender of the city.
Under pressure from Washington, Taylor broke the armistice and occupied the city of Saltillo, south of Monterrey. Santa Anna blamed the loss of Monterrey and Saltillo on Ampudia and demoted him to command a small artillery batallion. On February 22,Santa Anna personally marched north to fight Taylor with 20, men.
Taylor had dug in at a mountain pass near a hacienda called Buena Vista with 4, men. Santa Anna suffered desertions on the way north and arrived with 15, men in a tired state. He demanded and was refused surrender of the Americans the night he arrived, then attacked in the next morning.
Santa Anna flanked the American positions by sending his cavalry and some of his infantry up the steep terrain that made up one side of the pass, while a division of infantry attacked frontally along the road leading to Buena Vista. Furious fighting ensued during which the Americans were almost routed, but were saved by artillery fire against a Mexican advance at close range by Captain Braxton Bragg, and a charge by the mounted Mississippi Riflemen under Jefferson Davis.
Having suffered discouraging losses, Santa Anna withdrew that night, leaving Taylor in control of Northern Mexico. Taylor later used the Battle of Buena Vista as the centerpiece of his successful presidential campaign. Meanwhile, rather than reinforce Taylor's army for a continued advance, President Polk sent a second army under U.
Polk distrusted Taylor, who he felt had shown incompetence in the Battle of Monterrey by agreeing to the armistice, and may have considered him a political rival for the White House. Scott performed the first major amphibious landing in the history of the United States in preparation for the Siege of Veracruz.
A group of 12, volunteer and regular soldiers successfully offloaded supplies, weapons and horses near the walled city. Included in the group was Robert E. Lee and George Meade. The city was defended by Mexican general Juan Morales with 3, men. Mortars and naval guns under Commodore Matthew C. Perry were used to reduce the city walls and harass defenders. The city replied as best it could with its own artillery. The effect of the extended barrage destroyed the will of the Mexican side to fight against a numerically superior foe, and they surrendered the city after 12 days under siege.
Americans suffered 80 casualties, while the Mexican side had around killed and wounded, about half of whom were civilian. During the siege, the American side began to fall victim to Yellow Fever. Scott then marched westward toward Mexico City with 8, healthy troops, while Santa Anna set up a defensive position in a canyon around the main road at the halfway mark to Mexico city, near the hamlet of Cerro Gordo.
Santa Anna had entrenched with 12, troops and artillery that were trained on the road, along which he expected Scott to appear. However, Scott had sent 2, dragoons ahead and the Mexican artillery prematurely fired on them and revealed their positions.
Instead of taking the main road, Scott's troops trekked through the rough terrain to the north, setting up his artillery on the high ground and quietly flanking the Mexicans. Although by then aware of the American positions, Santa Anna and his troops were unprepared for the onslaught that followed.
The Mexican army was routed. The Americans suffered casualties, while the Mexicans suffered over 1, casualties and 3, were taken prisoner. In May, Scott pushed on to Puebla, at the time the second largest city in Mexico. Because of the citizens' hostility to Santa Anna, the city capitulated without resistance on May Mexico City was laid open in the Battle of Chapultepec and subsequently occupied. Of these, only about 1, were from actual combat; the other casualties stemmed from disease and unsanitary conditions.
Mexican casualties remain somewhat of a mystery, and are estimated at 25, One of the contributing factors to loss of the war by Mexico was the inferiority of their weapons. The Mexican army was using British firearms from the Napoleonic War, while American troops had the latest American manufactured weapons. Furthermore, Mexican troops were trained to fire with their rifle held loosely at hip-level, while Americans used the much more accurate method of butting the rifle up to the shoulder and taking aim along the barrel.
Army and joined the Mexican army. Most were killed in the Battle of Churubusco; about were captured and hanged as deserters. The war also elicited the sense of national unity in Mexico, which had been lacking since the Independence movement dissolved in The war also provoked the emergence of a new class of politicians in Mexico.
They finally got rid of Santa Anna's grip over Mexico and eventually proclaimed a liberal republic in One of the first acts of the liberal republic was the enactment of several laws that facilitated and propelled the colonization of the vast and sparsely populated northern Mexican States.
Avoiding further territorial losses was the driving idea behind the colonization laws. On the other hand, the annexed territories contained thousands of Mexican families, mostly of mixed Spanish and indigenous descent, as well as many northern Indian tribes.
Some opted to return to Mexico and others chose to remain in the U. The United States and Mexico eventually formed the International Boundary and Water Commission, in order to settle boundary disputes. See the case of El Chamizal. For years after the war, various minor insurrections against the American Government and what many called injustices would continue to flare up in the border states, in areas that had a heavy Mexican pre-war population.