The Feminist (history as gender struggle) view of women in the Arab world, and in other areas of the world, is that such women have throughout history experienced discrimination and have been subject to restrictions of their freedoms and rights. Some of these practices are based on religious beliefs, but many of the . Under Islamic law, marriage was no longer viewed as a "status". A Muslim girl will usually have marriage in mind as an endgame from an early stage. In theory it also means no sex during daylight hours, but in practice girls will if A European archaeologist I believe in the 17 or s states that he felt it. What is the family from the point of view of Islam? What do we know about their customs and traditions, from dating to divorce, including customs and traditions of .
Muslim Dating Culture: Traditions and Peculiarities
A friend of mine, a Muslim, once told me that in many families known to him, it is necessary that the wife asks her husband every night before going to bed: If the man himself does not want intimacy, he should still be affectionate towards his wife. To take care of the sexual satisfaction of the partner is expected from both - both from the husband and the wife. The Koran prescribes a man to enter into an intimate relationship with his wife every 4 days.
He is not allowed to leave his wife for a long time alone, leaving for more than six months. Inattention to his wife and a long separation can provoke her infidelity, which is a sin and an excuse for divorce.
With a pregnant wife, you can have a close relationship. Sex in Islam, however, like many other things, is ritualized: Before the intercourse a man is supposed to read a prayer - it protects the alleged child, who can be conceived precisely this time, from the influences of the Shaitan. It is necessary to do ablution for a man before sex however, as with every serious matter! If there is no water, the same movements are made with dry hands - symbolically.
The same ritual is obligatory after intimacy - as gratitude to the Almighty for the bestowal. After sex, you must necessarily rinse the genitals with water both man and womanthe same must be done before the second act. A man is not supposed to get up right after the end of a sexual act, you need to lie still in bed that's the proof of the fact that women all over the world differ a little from each other in the depths of their hearts.
There are no special prohibitions on the position in Islam: Unwanted time for sex: Many men who are dating Muslim women are interested in the question of divorce with a Muslim woman. We are all adults and we understand that not all love stories have a happy ending.
Therefore, you need to take into account all the nuances. The valid reasons for divorce are: Betrayal of a husband or wife in reality it is used, as a rule, by men, it is much more difficult for women to get divorced because the husband has cheated.
If the wife does not read obligatory prayers. If a man is impotent, he must divorce his wife at her request. In Muslim dating culture there are three types of divorce: The husband announces to his wife about the intention to divorce, but leaves her in the house for a period of three menstrual cycles. During this period, he can reconcile with his wife, moreover, her consent in this case is not required.
If reconciliation does not occur, then after three months the spouses enter into a complete divorce. However, despite the name of the divorce, the relationship between the spouses can still be restored. The final divorce - when the husband says three times: But for this, she must first marry another man and divorce him.
If a man is interested in his wife, but, in hot blood, divorced her, which he later regretted, then often in order to return the woman he himself is looking for her "reliable" husband, with whom his ex-future wife will get divorced within a few days. In Muslim dating, the Quran and its tenets influence every aspect of the relationship, the engagement, marriage and premarital sex. Muslim couples honor the Quran in their dating practices. Meet Singles in your Area!
Quran-Based Rules Under the Muslim faith, single men and women can't be alone together. The belief is that when eligible Muslim men and women see each other without a chaperon present, the devil is also present, in the form of sexual temptation, according to Search Your Love. Young couples who respect the tents of their faith and of of the Quran arrange to meet with a chaperon present.
The Islamic faith frowns heavily on unchaperoned dating and premarital sex, hence the presence of a family member as a chaperon. Dating with Chaperons Even Muslim couples that are already engaged to marry cannot spend time alone together. Somali natives who have been educated abroad are returning to help with these endeavors. Several programs have been started to promote nomadic women's enterprises, such as the collecting of henna leaves for grinding into natural cosmetics.
Women in urban areas sell wares in the streets or marketplaces or run their own shops. In spite of condemnation by the United Nations and by modern Muslim leaders, nearly all Somali girls are forced to undergo the dangerous and disfiguring circumcision rite known to the United Nations as "female genital mutilation" FGM. Somalia also has one of Africa's highest maternal mortality rates; approximately sixteen mothers die for every one thousand live births.
Widespread efforts to correct unsafe practices in reproductive health are expected to improve these conditions in the twenty-first century. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage.
Somali marriages have traditionally been considered a bond between not just a man and a woman but also between clans and families.
Until very recently, most Somali marriages were arranged, usually between an older man with some wealth and the father of a young woman he wished to wed. These customs still hold true in many rural areas in the twenty-first century. The man pays a bride price—usually in livestock or money—to the woman's family.Muslim Dating Struggles
Samaal traditionally marry outside their family lineage, or, if within the lineage, separated from the man by six or more generations. Saab follow the Arab tradition of marrying within the father's family lineage, with first cousins often marrying.
Muslim Rules on Dating
A Somali bride often lives with her husband's family after marriage, with her own parents providing the home and household goods. She keeps her family name, however. Weddings are joyous occasions, but the couple often signs an agreement giving the bride a certain amount of property should the couple divorce, which is common in Somalia. The husband holds the property in trust for her. Tradition calls for the wife to relinquish her right to the property if she initiates the divorce.
Islamic law permits a man to have up to four wives if he can provide them and their children with equal support. If a man repeats three times to his wife, "I divorce you," the couple is considered divorced. The wife is given a three-month grace period, however, in case she should be pregnant.
Today many urban Somalis choose a mate based on love and common interests rather than accepting an arranged marriage. The Somali domestic unit consists of a man, his wife or wives, and their children. Elderly or unmarried relatives may live with the family.
In homes with more than one wife, each wife usually lives with her children in her own house, and the husband and father divides his time among them. In the case of a divorce, children usually remain with their mother.
The male is considered the head of the household, except where it is headed by a divorced or widowed woman. Inheritance passes from father to son in Somali families. A wife remains a part of her father's lineage, while her children belong to her husband's lineage. Under Islamic law, daughters are entitled to inherit half of what sons get, but in Somali society daughters usually did not receive valuable animals or land.
Under Siad Barre's regime, social reforms included equal inheritance rights for women, although this was opposed by some Islamic leaders. Somali society is based on a clan-family structure.
The two major clan groups are the Samaal or Samale and the Saab or Sabnamed for two brothers who are said to have been members of the prophet Muhammad's tribe, the Quraysh of Arabia. The Samaal, which make up about three-quarters of the Somali population, are divided into four main clan-families: The Saab are divided into the Digil and Rahanwayn clan-families. Major clans can have thousands of members, each claiming descent from a common ancestor.
These clans are subdivided into subclans and into primary lineage groups. Somali men trace their membership in a particular clan-family through their patrilineage, going back a dozen or more generations. Clan groups with the longest ancestry have the most prestige. Clans and subclans are associated with the territory they occupy for most of the year. Socialization Child Rearing and Education. Somali children are raised with much love but are also disciplined and taught to work from age five or six, with little time for play.
In spite of numerous hardships, Somali children are known for their sense of joy and abundant laughter. Children are taught independence and self-reliance and to carefully observe the world around them.
Both boys and girls are circumcised during a ceremony and celebration. Boys and girls are kept separated, according to Islamic law, and traditionally do not date, although a group of teenage males do a courtship dance for girls of marriageable age.
Because of the high incidence of divorce, many children grow up with only one parent, usually the mother, although boys may stay with their father and his wives.
Multiple wives make for family groups with many children. Education for Somali children in all but the wealthiest urban families was practically nonexistent, except for training in reading the Qur'an, before the early s.
Boys in rural areas attended outdoor schools where they learned Arabic using wooden slates. Before independence some attended Roman Catholic schools, where they learned Arabic or Italian.
Under Siad Barre, a Latin-based alphabet was created for the Somali language, which previously had no written form. The leader undertook a massive literacy campaign in Somalia and achieved some success, although many nomadic children still did not attend school, and many others, especially girls, dropped out after four years of primary school.
Students learned reading, writing, and arithmetic as well as Arabic, animal husbandry, and agriculture. A lack of trained teachers, materials, and schools, however, made secondary-school classes inadequate, and only about 10 percent of students went on to secondary school. When civil war broke out, most secular education stopped, as schools were bombed and the government, which had hired teachers, collapsed.
However, some dedicated teachers struggled on during A woman and child in Og Village, Ainabo. Somali children are raised with much love, combined with discipline. Students continued to come, eager to learn even when there were no chairs or desks and no roof on the school. In the absence of a government, parents contributed what they could toward supplies so their children could continue to get an education.
Somali National University in Mogadishu, founded inwas the nation's principal university before the civil war. Courses were offered in education, sciences, law, medicine, engineering, geology, economics, agriculture, and veterinary science. The National Adult Education Center was established in the late s to combat a relapse in literacy among the adult nomadic population. In the Nomad Education Program was created by the Barre government, which established boarding schools in ten regions and selected students from various clan-families to attend school for sixty days.
Students ranged in age from fourteen to fifty, but most were in their twenties. After completing the course, they went home and taught what they had learned to other members of the clan-family. The most relevant courses for the nomad students were those related to geography and the environment. Other valuable classes were those in personal hygiene, nutrition, first aid, and midwifery for female students. The Nomad Education Program, like so many others, died during the civil war.
Somali National University was largely destroyed in the fighting in Mogadishu. University professors and Somali intellectuals began working in to establish a private university in Mogadishu. The new Mogadishu University was finally opened in September Somaliland also opened a private university, Amoud University, in It is largely supported by international funding and by Somalis living in the United Arab Emirates.
Etiquette In the Somali language soo maal, a common greeting of welcome, refers to the act of milking, offering a guest the opportunity to milk an animal and get himself something to drink. Somalis offer a milky tea and burn incense to welcome visitors. Somalis greet one another by saying, "Maalin wanaagsan" Good day or "Nabad myah?
Men of the same clan-family then share a long handshake. Women greet one another informally and may hug and kiss one another on the cheek.
Members of unrelated clan-families do not shake hands or exchange intimacies. Somalis also use certain Arab hand gestures to communicate. Religion is a major influence on the lives of Somalis. They are Sunni Muslims of the Shafi'ite rite, with great interest in Sufi spiritualism, characterized by chanting, whirling, chewing qat, a narcotic leafand falling into a trance as a way of communing with Allah.
They also include the veneration of Somali saints in religious worship. Added to the daily practice of Islam is a belief in mortal spirits called jinn, said to be descended from a fallen heavenly spirit.
According to folk beliefs, jinn can cause misfortune and illness or can help humans. Somalis believe the poor, weak, or injured have special spiritual powers given by Allah, so Somalis are always kind to the less fortunate in hopes that they will not use this power for evil against them. Unlike other Muslims, Somalis believe that both their religious and secular leaders have the power to bless and to curse people.
This power, believed to be given by Allah, is called baraka. Baraka is believed to linger at the tombs of Somali saints and to help cure illness and resolve other troubles upon a visit to the tomb. Islamic teachers and mosque officials make up a large portion of religious practitioners Islam has no priests.
Somali followers of Sufiism, given the name Dervishes, dedicate themselves to a life of religion by preaching Islam and giving up all possessions. The Sufi are also known for the farming communities and religious centers they established in southern Somalia, called jamaat. Among nomads, a respected male leader or religious devotee might be appointed wadad.
His duties are to lead prayers and to perform ritual sacrifices on religious holidays and special occasions. He also learns folk astronomy, which is used for healing, divination, and to determine times for migration.
Other religious practitioners include the Yibir clan of the Saab. Yibir practitioners are called on to exorcise spirits and restore health, good fortune, or prosperity to individuals through prayers and ceremonies, including animal sacrifice. Rituals and Holy Places. Mosques can be found in all Somali cities and towns.
Nomads worship wherever they are, with men and women praying and studying the Qur'an separately. In accordance A pedestrian passes a billboard in Mogadishu. Somali did not become a written language until They should recite the creed of Islam and observe zakat, or giving to the poor, if able.
They should make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once and should observe the fast of Ramadan. Tombs of the Somali holy men or sheiks, venerated as saints, have become national shrines. Pilgrims visit on the saint's annual feast day, usually in the month of his birth, when his power is believed to be the strongest. Religious holidays include the Islamic holidays of Ramadan the month of fasting ; Id al-Fitr the Little Feast ; the First of Muharram when an angel is said to shake the tree of life and death ; Maulid an-Nabi the birth of the prophet Muhammad ; and Id al-Adha commemorating the story of Abraham and his son Ishmael.
Islamic holidays fall at different times of year according to the Islamic calendar. Holidays are celebrated with feasting and storytelling, visiting graves, giving to the poor, parades, plays, and ceremonies.
Culture of Somalia - history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, dress
Death and the Afterlife. Somalis hold the Muslim view that each person will be judged by Allah in the afterlife. They also believe that a tree representing all Muslims grows at the boundary between Earth and Heaven some believe the boundary is on the Moon.
Each person is represented by a leaf on the tree. When an angel shakes the tree on the first day of the new year, in the Islamic month of Muharram, it is said that those whose leaves fall off will die within the coming year. Muslims also believe that a person who dies while fasting during Ramadan is especially blessed by Allah. When a Somali dies, feasting and celebration are held, as they are at a birth.
A Somali wife must mourn her husband's death in seclusion at home for four months and ten days, according to Islamic practice. Medicine and Health Care Before the civil war of the s, Somalia's Ministry of Health regulated all medical practices and personnel, but with the breakdown of the government and the destruction of most hospitals and clinics, Somalia's health care system has declined.
There are few doctors and hospitals, and many unqualified persons practice a form of medicine at private facilities, especially in Mogadishu and other cities. The absence of regulation carries over to prescription drugs, which are often improperly dispensed by pharmacies.
Most health care is free, but some hospitals charge patients a fee to help recover costs. Tuberculosis and malaria are the two major causes of illness and death in the nation.
Somalia had one of the world's highest tuberculosis rates inbut it also had one of the highest cure rates, thanks to U. In these organizations launched an aggressive program to fight malaria.
They have also conducted ongoing polio, measles, and tetanus vaccination campaigns. Cholera and other gastrointestinal diseases had become endemic in Mogadishu and other areas bylargely because of the piles of rubbish and poor sanitation conditions resulting from civil war.
Malnutrition and starvation, schistosomiasis, tetanus, leprosy, venereal disease, and skin and eye infections claim life and limb unnecessarily. In late studies showed from 8 to 9 percent of the subjects were HIV positive.
Health workers are being trained in prevention and management of sexually transmitted diseases. Somali folk medicine is often practiced by nomads and farmers who have no immediate access to medical care. Somalis believe that some kinds of illnesses are caused by possession of the body by spirits, which can be exorcised through ritual. They celebrate the Foundation of the Republic on 1 July.
At the beginning of August they hold a secular New Year celebration called Dab-Shid Fire-Lighting when they light a stick and jump over the fire. The Arts and Humanities Literature. Somalia has long been known as a nation of poets. A people with few possessions and no written language until the s, Somalis developed an oral tradition of poetry and storytelling, that has been passed down through generations.
Many of these poems and stories were written down in the late twentieth century.
A popular new genre of song on the radio in the late twentieth century was heello, taken from Somali poetry. Some themes of Somali poetry are history, philosophy, and clan politics, as well as praise or ridicule of humans or animals. Islamic poetry is also a Somali tradition; many poets were great religious leaders and are now considered saints.
Somali Islamic poetry is written in Arabic, often in the form of prayer. Although Somali poets have been writing since at least the twelfth century, the most well-known Somali Islamic poets of recent times are Seylici d.
Somali Islamic prose written in Arabic is called manqabah.